Anthony Bubalo is the Deputy Director of the Lowy Institute and has worked on the Middle East for over 25 years. He has written research papers on the links between the Middle East and Asia, on Islamism, democratisation and terrorism. He is a regular commentator on Middle East politics in the Australian and international media. For over a decade he was an officer of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. He studied Arabic in Cairo and served in Australian diplomatic missions in Saudi Arabia and Israel. He was also a Middle East Analyst with Australia’s peak analytical intelligence organisation, the Office of National Assessments.