Women scientists leave the profession in greater proportions than men and are under-represented in leadership roles. In this book, Kate White looks at the challenges that women face, which often result from discrimination and being positioned as outsiders. She asks the question: Why is it so important to keep women in science research? White’s research found a huge generational change between the Baby Boomers, the current science leaders, and Gen Xs and Gen Ys. Younger women and men reject the traditional model of a successful scientist—a single male for whom science is like a religious vocation. Instead, they support new professional models that support work–life balance. The Australian Government’s Innovation Agenda asserts that the nation cannot afford to invest in educating women to PhD level and then see them discouraged by barriers or struggle to balance families and careers. Keeping Women in Science explores new models to enable younger women and men to combine successful science research careers with family responsibilities.